After I read one single comment on my article I didn’t even answer it because the author of the reproof could not give any constructive criticism except for the negative emotions and complete ignorance of his own history to the argument provided by the author of the conception. Nevertheless, bearing in mind a well known axiom: “If weren’t understood means that it was you who couldn’t clearly state your idea”. The author of the conception (me) decided to develop it in order that even “every full could understand it”.
With this purpose I gathered the additional material and wrote the new work which I propose to the reader’s consideration. This work was also published (in the book titled “Geography of Crimea in Scientific-Popular Style”). It had the positive responses of the strict and unbiased critics, regardless that it repeats the idea of existence of two Russian peoples who are so unlike. Though, I’d like to dot all "i's and cross all t’s right away: It wasn’t me who first expressed this “seditious” idea, for which my opponent curses me in the choicest language. It was first stated by the commonly known Russian poet Mikhail Yurevich Lermontov (who, by the way, wasn’t Slav, but was Russian to the very marrow of his bones, as well as Pushkin and all writers of Tsarist Russia). This idea could be heard in his genius rhyme:
Farewell my Russia, filthy treasure,
The land of slaves, the land of lords
And you, the uniforms so azure,
And you, to them devoted hordes.
Frankly speaking Lermontov did not define exactly who was slave and who was lord in Russia. However, he also did not distinguish Russians as the nation and ethnic group. And it is quite understandable because Lermontov wasn’t ethnologist. He was a poet. I improved Mikhail Lermontov’s small imperfections, because I’m a geographer and ethnologist. And that’s why I’m bare the full responsibility for that.
Let me propose to your consideration my new work that supports the same old ideas.
The prominent historian (specialist in Turkic philology) and geographer (ethnologist) of the 20 century Lev Nikolayevich Gumilev said the following regarding the ethnoses: ethnos is a naturally founded form of collective existence of people organically entering into the biosphere (landscape). Being the part of the particular nature, i.e. landscape every ethnos contradicts oneself to the others similar communities, differ stereotypes of behavior and mentality. The ethnoses are formed both in Paleolithic and nowadays on the basis of complementarily, which expressed in common likings and unlinking to the people, as well as to the events of surrounding life. The group of close ethnoses, according to Gumilev makes super ethnos, which establish ethnic traditions, forms cultural and world perception basis, forms of common existence and being which in every ethnos have their unique peculiarities. (6) Nowadays there are more than 5000 ethnoses and their number is growing. The average life expectancy of the ethnos according to Gumilev is 1200 years. After its birth the ethnos develops, going through several stages of its development. The natural life of the ethnos could stop ending up on any stage. It depends on the historic situation.
As it was mentioned above, according to both archeological and historical monuments, the first ethnos of the Crimea are Tayrs. In 1 BC they occupied the territories of mountainous regions and the South coast of the Crimea. However, the contemporaries of Tayrs in the Crimea were as well the legendary Cimmerians, mentioned by Herodotus in his “The History” (5 c. BC), though, there are something about them in Homer’s “Odyssey” (9 c – the beginning of the 8 c. BC). Strabon (1 c. BC – 1 c. AD) mentioned them as well, telling that the Cimmerians – are the ancient aboriginals of the North Trans-Black Sea region and The North-West Caucasus. Displaced by Skiffs in the 7 c BC they moved to Asia Minor and left the historical scene in 6 c. BC.
Crimea in XI-VI centures BC.
The majority of the monuments of existence of Cimmerians preserved in the Kerch peninsular, though, they were spread all over the flat Crimea. The mountains, together with the South coast, as it was already mentioned, belonged to the Tayrs.
Referring to the first Ethnoses of the Crimea it is worth to give some facts about the number of these inhabitants. In particular, the close study of the famous Tayr’s monuments, as well as the numerous calculations on their number give us the grounds to consider that the number of Tayrs in the pre-ancient period (10 – 5 c. BC) could hardly exceed 5-6 thousand people. (14) In the ancient times (the second half of the 5 – 3 c. BC), when the productivity of labor increased and the close trade contacts were established with the surrounding ethnoses – Skiffs and Hellenes, the number of Tayr population reached 15-20 thousand people. The base of the Tayr’s economy in that period was cattle breeding, to a lesser degree – agriculture (in that period Cimmerians, who were ousted by Skiffs to the foothills, in general were busy in agriculture).
In the 7 c. BC the Skiffs came to the Crimea (the original name - Skolots). Herodotus wrote the following about Skiffs: “the nomadic Skiff tribes inhabited Asia. When Massagets ousted them using the military power, Skiffs crossed Araks and came to the Cimmerian land…” It is possible,- tells A. Shepinsky concerning this, that the part of Cimmerians who left their land moved to the mountainous Crimea and settled there among Tayrian tribes, thus establishing the culture which we now conventionally call “Kizilkobinska”. It is possible that this very resettlement of the subsequent Cimmerians reflected in the message of Strabon, telling that there is Stolovaya and Cimmery mountain in the mountainous country of Tayrs. However, that may be, but there is such point of view, shared by numerous researches that Kizilkobians were the subsequent Cimmerians.
Cimmerians of the Crimean peninsula, did not left to Asia Minor, but preserved their ethnic identity longer, than in the other areas of the trans Northern Black Sea region. However, their destiny varied in different parts of the Crimea. In steppe areas the remnants of the separated Cimmerian tribes (i.e. Kizilkobians) had to enter the close contacts with Scythians and ancient Greek settlements.
They soon assimilated among them, that could confirm the materials of the antique settlements in Tarhankut and Kerch peninsula.
Crimea in V-III centures BC.
2.Bospor, Khersoness St.
The late Cimmerian tribes of the mountainous Crimea had another destiny. Scythians, these typical steppe dwellers, at first were not attracted by the mountain areas. The Greeks also did not desired to live here. The majority of the population consisted of native Taur tribes and – to a much smaller degree – Cimmerian tribes. Hence, when a flat part of the Crimea was occupied by the nomadic Scythians, the Cimmerians (Kizilkobins), who receded under their impact, found a favorable ground here, in the mountains. Though, these tribes also entered a close contact with Taurs, nevertheless, still long kept their traditions and, obviously, the certain independence.
As far as Scythians concerns, having displaced Cimmerians in the flat part of the Crimea and on the Kerch peninsula, they did not stop. Having settling firmly in the Crimea, they gradually turned to a settled way of life, mastering agriculture. With this purpose in the second half of the 4 century AD Scythians began to settle in the original Taur and Kizilkobian land being the most favorable for agriculture (in foothill areas and valleys of the rivers). At the same time, in the 4 century AD, they founded rather large for those times state formation with the capital Naples Scythian (the territory of modern Simferopol). This state formed on type of Bosporus kingdom, established by the Helladic colonists in the 5 century AD on the Kerch peninsula with capital Panticapaeum, included three Crimean ethnoses: Scythians, Taurs and Cimmerians, who agreed to live together as one people.
The process of mutual assimilation of these three Crimean ethnoses has increased considerably when on a boundary of millennia the Scythians of the trans Black Sea region began to be displaces by the kindred tribes of Sarmatians. Without open military confrontation Sarmatians, entering the Scythian state, began to supersede gradually Scythians from their original lands, making them leave the steppe open spaces and settle in the mountains. The researchers referred to the architectural monuments in the mountainous Crimea of that period as Taur-Scythian, and the population - Taur-Scythians.
With the growth of the population in the Mediterranean region, in the second and the first millennium AD the first navigators from Ellada visited the Crimea. However, the Hellenes started to colonize the coast of the Crimea only in the 8 century AD. However, within two centuries they occupied the whole Black Sea coast, and founded more than ten states - policies, the most successful of which appeared Chersonese and Panticapaeum. Hellenes started the active trade with the local population, which promoted to the rapid development of productive forces of the adjacent with policies territories. In fact, simultaneously with trade they brought on a local ground a wide experience of agriculture as well.
Thus, already on the boundary of the millenniums there appeared three territorial-economic and ethnic zones in the Crimea which were closely connected with the peculiarities of the landscape of the Crimean nature. The first was the Skiff-Sarmat step Crimea with its nomadic cattle breading and grain agriculture, the second was Taur mountainous Crimea with its fruit and wine grooving and the mountainous distant-pasture cattle breading and finally the third was the Crimean coast with its trade city-states where various trades and handicrafts were developed. The ethnic composition of the Black sea region towns quickly became very mixed because the enterprising people all around the nearby regions both from Mideterainian and Trans Black sea region came to these towns.
Later on, in course of history such ethnic-landscape division of the Crimea not only preserved but more and more imposed the individual features to its citizens which were apparent primarily in the economical activities of people as well as in the mentality. In other words, landscape peculiarities of each of these three Crimean regions as a rule had an effect on the ethnoses living in these regions.
As a matter of fact, the forming of the ethnoses, its origin is connected with the particular territory and the particular geographical environment. Because the only goal of any community of the species Homo sapiens is survival in that specific natural conditions, where this animal settles. Possessing the flexible mind Homo sapiens adapts to the particular landscape, using their knowledge according to the peculiarities of landscape of the surrounding geographical environment, he becomes either a fisherman, or a cattle-breeder, or a farmer, etc. In the process of this adaptation he acquires the skills which are imposed by the geographical environment and creates the culture of existence which connected with the surrounding landscape. Here under the culture we mean the way of life.
Naturally, every ethnic group develops its own culture consisting not only of the questions of survival but of more broader spectrum of social life. In the course of time, after the lapse of many generations the way of life in the particular natural conditions become influence not only the lifestyle, but the anthropological features of a man, thus forming the type which most fit to the environment. By the way, this is the way of race forming. However, referring the Crimea, regarding the forming of its indigenous ethnoses, we, of course, don’t touch upon the questions of race forming because for the later we need another time scale. However, both of these processes have the same principle. In its basis the ethnic identity in its basis contains adaptation to the particular geographical environment, landscape.
If the indigenous people has 2-3 thousand year history of formation in the particular landscape it becomes the part of this landscape. Replace it by another people means to destroy the natural harmony after which follows the disharmony of the entire/whole landscape. This primarily refers to the question of the people displacement.
However, lets continue an excursus to the history of ethno genesis of the Crimea.
So, from the ancient times the Crimea became an object of people’s attention as the territory, extremely favourable for the settlement and residence. At that, the steppe nomad cattle-breeders of the trans-Caspian and Trans-Black sea regions were attracted by the steppe flat Crimea, and the sea colonists of the Mediterranean – Crimean coast. The Crimean mountains didn’t attracted anybody at first.
However, these very mountains in the course of time became this melting pot where the various ethnoses coming to the Crimea melted into the indigenous people.
Even Taurs who one of the first rendered habitable mountainous valleys didn’t left to the mountains on their self will. It is possible that Cimmerians drove them up there, displacing them from the steppe expanses. But Cimmerians were ousted to the mountains by Skiffs and Skiffs were ousted by Sarmats.
Sarmats (Savromats, Allans) who dominated in the trans Black sea region until 3 c AD for almost 6 centuries. Having control under the steppe Crimea, they couldn’t spread/extend their power to the whole Crimea and acknowledged the sovereignty of the slave-owning South. Hellene colonies on the Crimean coast in fact lived under the law of the slave-owning Mediterranean. At that time when the steppe nomad didn’t practice slavery due to the specific character of the nomad way of life (“The usage/employment of slave labor in the nomad society was scanty, - writes the researcher N.Budaev (2). – It is quite explainable ”)
In other words, in the Crimea, even during antique time, in the very height of slaveholding, two different public formations managed to get on. And what is surprising, in the mountains the slavery didn’t found the grounds for the development as well. Probably, the reason for this is, on the one hand, the mentality of the highlanders who had their origin in “steppe dweller”, who didn’t practice slavery, and on the other hand – the practicing of a subsistence economy, where a superfluous mouth is a burden.
With the strengthening of the Roman empire and its expansion on the East, Hellada appeared under authority of omnipotent Rome. Naturally, its Crimean colonies also appeared the subjects to the powerful Rome. The arrival of the Roman cohorts and their stay in the cities for more than three centuries had noticeably enriched and diversified an ethnic contingent of the coastal Crimea, because with the Roman cohorts the whole multinational population of the empire came to the Crimea. As to the steppe Crimea, Sarmatians managed to stop the Romans, and didn’t allow them to leave for the limits of the coast.
However in the 3 century AD Sarmatians of the Crimea had to escape in the mountains and to hide there from unexpected northern conquerors - Goths (Ostgoths), who came from Gothland and Baltic plains of Germany. Naples Scythian was destroyed and the state ceased its existence. But the Roman Crimea repulsed Ostgoths and has saved the cities from destruction. Those Sarmatians who hid in the Crimean mountains, formed there the compact settlements, with a certain similarity of the state Government. This territory in the Crimean mountains existed for many more centuries under the name of Allania. (11)
But hardly a half hundred years had passed that Goths suffered the same fate as the previous owners of the Trans Black sea region steppes they were overcame by furious Gunnes in 375. Invading the Crimea, Gunnes drove the Crimean Goths to the mountains and walked fire and a sword across the Crimea, and also ruined the state Bosporus.
Goths who hid in the mountains, by an example of Sarmatians-Allans also settled compactly between Balaklava and Sudak and formed an ethnic community under the name Gothia which existed for almost one thousand years. Due to compact settling in mountains Goths not only did saved themselves from extermination, as the earlier population of the Crimea, but also could preserve for many centuries their ethnic originality and even the language. All mountain dwellers began to name themselves the Crimean Tatars only five centuries ago.
Thus, the mountains of Crimea became for the Crimean steppe dwellers not only a refuge, but also an original cradle for the formation of the indigenous ethnos. So it was in the antique epoch as well lasting up to the invasion of Gunns. So it was in the epoch of the Middle Ages as well, when the Great resettlement of peoples rolled up waves of cattlemen - nomads to the Crimea as well (certainly, for a smaller part). But all of them, i.e. newcomers – conquerors who were pressed by the subsequent conquerors, eventually, found a shelter in the mountains of the peninsular, bringing their mite in the formation of indigenous ethnoses.
The second area of formation of indigenous people of the Crimea became the coastal zone of the peninsula. However, the human material to this zone didn’t come from the north, but from the south, basically in the sea way. Naturally, its ethnic structure was of utterly other character.
We already mentioned Hellenes, being the first colonizers of the coastal territories. With the establishment of the Roman domination the Crimean cities reach their fullest flower of culture, for those times. When Rome experienced a decline and a crisis of culture, its Crimean province caught the initiative and began one of the centers of a spiritual life. The independent policy of local arkhonts promoted to a greater extent to the prosperity of the province. "Let's ponder upon this simple and indisputable fact, - writes the historian V.E. Vozgrin (5), semicolony province left behind the mother country for centuries in social progress! Christian Rome with one's last bit of strength clings for slave-owning, makes huge efforts for its preservation, when its semi pagan Crimea already for century is as free, and the Crimean experts already long time ago discussed in the "barbarous" Latin the theory of unprofitableness of a slave labor and cancelled it accordingly. The ancient world died away everywhere, but the glow of the future great epoch, the Middle Ages, lighted up in the East where the Crimea the first in Europe gave freedom to its slaves."
The great resettlement of peoples which begun with the invasion of Gunns and ended with invasion of Tatar-Mongols, could be referred as Turkic as well, because all these peoples spoke Turkic language. Heading along the open spaces of steppe to the West in search of juicy pastures. The Trans Black sea region steppes were the most fertile in this respect.
However the cattlemen - nomads were not only engaged in cattle breading. The eternal search of new free pastures made them a born soldiers where the success accompanied only the most courageous, resolute, hardy and strong. Therefore the way of life of the cattleman - nomad integrally matched with the predatory attacks on their neighbors, and the military loot was one of clauses of the income of the nomad of steppes. And that is why neither Gunns nor Avars, having concurred the Trans Black sea region steppes, didn’t stopped on the achieved. Having united in the union of tribes, both of them, having felt the indestructibility of their armadas, they left the limits of their native natural areas and were engaged there only robbery. This, eventually, predetermined their lawful/predictable end in the Western Europe. Already after a hundred years after their settlement in Europe Gunnes disappeared as people from the historical arena. Avars held on not much longer, because on the European landscapes both of them could not be engaged in anything except for military robbery. Their military power which was not sustained with that nutrient environment, that brought them up, eventually, got exhausted.
The example of Gunns and Avars has once again confirmed the rule, that people, deprived of its native land, native landscapes, is doomed for extinction. Certainly, it gives posterity, but this posterity is already another people. The people can exist for a long period only in that natural environment in which it was born.
However, Tatar-Mongols did not stay too long in the Western Europe, but returned on their native landscapes and founded the most powerful imperial state, which continues to exist up to now, changing only the names in the history, but for all that preserving its imperial essence (Golden Horde, Moskovia or Velikorossia, Russian empire, Soviet Union, the Russian Federation).
The Golden Horde which has appeared in the Eastern Europe, actually was only the western continuation of the Great empire of Chingiz-khan, referred to by its contemporaries in the contiguous/neighbor countries as Tartaria which included the expanses of Siberia and modern China, Central Asia including Iran and Afghanistan. Though, every province of the empire after the death of Chingiz-khan developed on their own and independently from each other, but on the maps of Europeans the territories controlled by chingizids, for a long time more were marked/labeled with one word "Tartaria".
The Turks who moved to the West along the Trans-Caspian and Trans-Black sea steppes, by all means came also to the Crimea. Therefore, except for Gunnes and Avars, here were "Black Hungarians", Khazars, Pechenegs, and Poloves, who followed one after another and, eventually, found their shelter in the mountains of the peninsula and, to a lesser degree, in cities of the coast.
The Great Turkic resettlement of peoples could not help affecting during these centuries the language of the aboriginals/natives of the Crimea as well. Already to the 8 century, according to Vozgrin, the Turkic speech prevailed in the Crimea. Turkic language began to penetrate both to Gothia and Southern Coast cities, in spite of the strong influence of Greek speaking Byzantium. However, the need for communication with the majority of the population forced both Goths and Greeks-Byzantines to get used to a local Turkic dialect to an extent that they in the course of time even began to conduct services in orthodox temples in this common language of communication.
In 7 - 9 centuries AD the Crimea became a province of two empires at the same time of the early Middle Ages - orthodox Byzantium and multiconfession Hazaria. For the first time the Crimea was divided on a meridian: the West went to Byzantium, and the East - to Hazaria. This division left its traces on the development of cultures of the territories divided as well. With the fall of Hazaria the whole south of the Crimea together with the mountainous territories went under the influence of Byzantium.
Though in the 11 century the decline of the Byzantian empire begins and Byzantines from seaside cities of the Crimea were superseded/ousted by Italians: Venetians and Genoeses who from the 11 century up to the 15 century kept the control over the whole coast of the Crimean peninsula, involuntarily bringing the mite in ethnogenesis of South coast dwellers as well. At the same time in 11 century the Armenians who escaped from Turkish invasion emigrated to the Crimea.
In 13 century the Crimea reached the last wave of Great resettlement of peoples. This time the recurrent Turkic invasion was headed by Tatar-Mongols who by the moment of occurrences in the East Europe were in a strong degree Turkicized and did not speak their native Mongolian language. In the Crimea, having driven Polovecs from steppe pastures, the conquerors first only contented themselves with imposing taxation on the subject native settlements. They didn’t took part in ethnogenesis of the Crimeans as well, staying within the limits of steppe landscapes. And on the appearance Hordeans differed noticeably from the previous conquerors of the Crimea: they referred to yellow race, being Mongoloids as against/unlike the previous Turks, who all were Europeoids, belonging to white race.
However in two centuries The need of dialogue within the limits of one social and economic space made the newcomers establish more closer contacts with the natives of the Crimea. Especially fast the process of association of the steppe Crimea with two other areas started after the official proclamation by the Crimean Khanate of independence from Golden Horde empire. Exactly the united for all the peninsula the Crimean state (that was not till now in the history of the peninsula) promoted the association of all three ethno-landscape provinces of the Crimea always existing independently and separately from each other. The initiators of the association became the steppe dwellers, headed by crown princes of the Great Chingiz-khan. They, in struggle for authority, decided to be separated from the empire, having called in allies the population of the whole Crimea. But in order to win the favor of the natives without which it was impossible to resist to the power of the empire, it was necessary to create such state which would serve the interests of the whole population of the Crimea. And Khadzhi-Devlet-Girey (end 11 c - 1466) created such State.
Unlike the state structure of the Golden Horde, where the pyramid of the authority of the absolute monarchy was precisely observed, the first Khan of the Crimea created the state structure of the West-European sample - a parliamentary monarchy where in the role of the parliament served Divan consisting of numerous regional feudal lords, representing the ethnic mosaic of all the natives of the Crimea. Besides Nogay Murzas and the mountain princes and the governors of the cities - colonies, Divan consisted of the representatives of the numerous spiritual faiths of the Crimea as well. In fact, since the antique centuries when the Crimea was either under the authority of Rome, or Byzantium Jew Hazaria, the various religions both pagans, and Christians of the most various kinds (orthodox, Ikonoborecs, Nestorians, Catholics, etc.), as well as Jews, and Karays, and Moslems found a shelter in the Crimea.
The official formation of the Crimean Khanate is dated 1443, though, Khodja-Girey became the actual governor of the Crimea since 1428, having arrived in the Crimea from Lithuania with 16000 Nogay Army. The Outstanding mind and high erudition allowed the Crimean Khan to achieve the great successes in creation of the independent succeeding state and to gain, thus, an indisputable authority of the whole population of the Crimea.
Thus, the main merit of Khadzhi-Girey was that he created the new generality of people of the Crimea - the Crimean Tatar people.
Until the creation by Khadzhi-Girey of the Crimean state separate and independent from the Golden Horde empire the natives of the Crimea did not name themselves Tatars. This ethnonim was born in the far away Mongolia and called the Mongolian tribe (ethnos) which brought up the future governor of the mighty Mongolian empire, unsurpassed down to our days - Tatarii (Tartarii - on a spelling on the West-European maps) though, Timuchin (Chingiz-khan) himself came from another Mongolian tribe.
Having subjugated the neighboring Turkic peoples, the tribe dissolved in them, and the ethnonim turned to Turks, being the basic population of the empire. Therefore for the Russians and the other peoples which have fallen under the authority of the extensive empire, Tatars began to associate with Turks.
Being a Chingizid i.e. the descendant of Chingiz-khan, Khadzhi-Girey, proudly named himself the Tatar, though in the strict sense of this word the he was not a Tatar as was not Chingiz-khan. However, because Tatars gave a name of the empire, any hereditary governor of the empire had the right to be named like this. Crimean Khanate, headed by the Tatar, also became to be names by the neighbor states as Tatar (though, there wasn’t ever any ethnic Tatar). However, it was honorable and prestigious to refer to as the Tatar. Therefore, the Nogay Army, which came with the Tatar Khadzhi-Girey, naturally, was named Tatar.
But the army grew due to the Crimean reinforcement. Consequently, the first Crimean Tatars appeared. And their number increased continuously: not only due to the participation in the victorious military campaigns, but also due to the joining to the religion of the governor of the Crimea - honored and esteemed. Thus, gradually the Islam in the Crimea began knitting with the ethnonim the Tatar.
The human community under the name of the nation - a rather new historical phenomenon. Nowadays, there are about 800 nations in the world, according to the United Nations. As against the ethnos, the nation is created not by a natural complimentary way, but by artificial one, which is based on the conscious agreement to live in the uniform state, recognizing the necessity to obey the constitutional laws. Therefore, the nation is first of all the political association, and secondly - the voluntary recognition of the democratic equality of all participants of the agreement. Thus, the nation is first of all a voluntary community of people united under the guise of the uniform idea and the future common aims, which is ready to obey the order established by the given state. Hence, the nation can unite people of the most various ethnoses and races and even faiths, though the last one is rare. And finally, the last: the nation unlike the ethnos can exist eternally while there are people, considering themselves the members of this community.
In Europe the nations began to appear in the process of democratic transformations of the despotic modes. Englishmen, for example, have identified themselves as the nation in the struggle against a despotism of their own king and the financial claims of the Pope. In 13 century the union of Barons - Normans and the townspeople of Anglo-Saxons was established in order to limit the royal authority. As a result the English nation was born after the ratification of the Great Charter of liberties in 1215. (9)
The foundation for the Swiss nation was made by the political unions in the year of 1291 and 1315, conclude between the sovereign states - cantons for the defense against the Sacred Roman empire. The mountainous country inhabited by various ethnoses, right by means of creation of confederative and democratic system of authority, managed to merge various ethnoses into the uniform Swiss people with the common national consciousness. So, from the very beginning, the concept of "nation" was the concept of political and meant not a generality of language (till now in Switzerland there are four state languages) and cultures, rather the opportunity of joint expression of people’s will. In other words, the nation is not an ethnic, but an ideological generality of people.
As a matter of fact, each national state, by preserving the above-stated principles, is formed in its own way, and the nations develop differently. Some more examples confirming this.
The Spanish nation was formed in the struggle against the foreigners, in the process of reconqista – that is reconquer of the peninsula. Different radical ethnoses, which inhabited Spain, got united through the public destruction of foreigners: Morisks and Morrans. The people expressed its will by means of denunciations and pogroms. Its cruelty surpassed the samples of 20 century and proved that, like any other idea, the idea of the nation can be created and used by the most inconsistent ways.
The Italian nation was created during the liberation struggle as well, but much later - in 19 century. From what a complex conglomerate of ethnic elements the nation had to be created! For centuries the waves of various conquerors accumulated on the Apennine peninsula, assimilated here with the indigenous culture and brought their ethnic components (that makes it related with the history of the Crimea). Nevertheless, the Italian nation all was created as a single whole, with its unique face and with very unique bright culture.
The formation of the Crimean nation (outside the Khanate it was called Crimean Tatar) also was complex and had not been realized by the population of Crimea at once, going through some stages in its formation, that is also the natural process.
First there was an idea to get separated from the empire. This idea ripened amidst the top elite in the minds of the pretenders to the Khanate in Golden Horde. The idea began to be implemented from 1428 with the arrival of Hadzhi-Girey to the Crimea. Until 1443, when the independence was proclaimed legally, there was an incubatory period on seizing a strong hold on the minds of the natives of the Crimea, on gaining the authority by the new governors of the Crimea. It was achieved by means of rising the prosperity of peoples and stability of life, which was supported by the successful military campaigns, which prevented the devastating attacks on the Crimea on the part of the Saray. Thus, Hadzhi-Girey work for to unite all three provinces of the Crimea not so much by military power, as by economic ties, using the success and the prosperity of citizens of the state by mutual cooperation. At the times of Gireys the inhabitants of the Crimea understood clearly and felt their connection to the common state whose prosperity depended upon nobody but them.
As a result of the process of consolidation of the Crimean Tatar nation went on so resolutely and steadily, what surprises the modern historians: three tens of Crimean ethnoses, which lived separately for the time being and in isolation from each other, suddenly understood, that they all belong to a common community. This new understanding of ones place in the society as a snow ball seized the broader and broader layers of the population of the peninsula. Probably, this very comprehension induced the numerous ethnoses of the Crimea, moreover divided by different faiths, to deny it and to accept almost without exception the Islam, the religion of the founder of the Crimean state. In fact, before the formation of the Crimean Khanate the Islam in Crimea was the least popular.
Especially quickly the process of turning/accepting Islam by the population of the Crimean went on at the times of the descendants of the founder of the Khanate. And there is an explanation to this. The matter is that the Crimea after overthrowing the despotism of Golden Horde had to wage never-ending wars with the successor of the empire - Moskovia, which wanted to revive the empire in its former borders. Having transferred the capital from Saray, destroyed by Mengli-Girey to Moscow, Ivan the Terrible had the intention to give to the revived empire an another faith orientation as well. It became a state policy of the Great Russian empire to turn every subdued subject Tatars – Moslems of Kazan, Astrakhan and Siberian Khanates into orthodox, naming them after that the Russians. (4)
Crimeans, who recently freed themselves from the despotism of the governors of the Saray, did not quite want to fall under the dictatorship of a new despot, though the majority of the Crimeans were Orthodox. Resisting the territorial expansion of the Velikorosses, the Crimeans began simultaneously to get inspired with anti-orthodox moods. Besides all the Crimeans had the full opportunity to compare the advantages of two religions: the Islam and Orthodoxy. In fact, since 1475 the Crimea was considered as the subject of the Ottoman Empire. However, Turks did not liquidate the Crimean Khanate what the empire always longed for. Having landed the powerful troops and having seized the cities of the coast, they did not begin to interfere with an internal life of the Crimean people, preserving the State, created by Hadzhi-Girey. Therefore, the Crimeans, having appreciated the democratism of Muslim Turkey, made a choice, preferring free self-management under the protectorate of the faraway Great Port to the despotism of the serfage Russia.
That is why predominantly the Christian-Multifaith Crimea very quickly began to change its religion orientation, turning into Islam from Christianity. In the pre-khanate Turk speaking Crimea the indigenous population differed from each other by a principle of belonging to religion: Christians named themselves Urums, Jews - Krimchaks, Karaits - Karaims. Before the advent of Gireys the Moslems was not refer to as the Crimean Tatars. To name oneself this way began only the people of the new community – nation, consolidated around the Khan and choosing Muslim religion as a distinctive attribute.
By 1783 when Russia, eventually, annexed Crimean khanate as a result of the use of its military power, the Crimean Tatars already represented 98 % of the state’s population. The rest 2 % was shared Urums, Krymchaks and Karaims. At that, the number of Urums was fixed very precisely by the occupational administration of Russia - 31 thousand. (11) Among the first acts of Ekaterina 2 was to collect them from all around the Crimea and exile to Trans-Azov region, devastating even Christian monasteries of the Crimea.
Thus, the Crimean Tatar nation, which was created in 1443 and existed for more than three centuries in the form of an independent parliamentary monarchy, fell again under a despotism of the autocratic empire. The serf orthodox Russia set its goal either to liquidate the indigenous people of the Crimea, that was in a pointed manner almost without exception turned to Islam in the process of the three centenary antagonisms and resistance to the territorial expansion of the Empire, or after all to force the citizens to turn through the Orthodoxy to Russians. But the last condition was unreal because the natives of the Crimea had already made their choice, turning from Orthodoxy to Moslem. Hence, one option was left: to destroy or expel the Crimean Tatars people, as objectionable for serf orthodox empire, replacing it with its Christian colonists (Greeks, Bulgarians, Armenians, Germans, Russians). To achieve this purpose the Crimean Tatars were subjected to the most severe genocide, which made them to run in panic from the Crimea. The Exodus of the indigenous people of the Crimea continued down to 20 century, following which the 3 million population of the Crimean Khanate reduced to 100 thousand. The tsarism did not even stop the prospect of transformation of the richest natural granary on its historical cultural heritage into the lifeless desert, which no Christian colonists were capable neither to understand, nor to master, because they were the possessors of the landscape culture alien for the Crimea. However, the illiterate conquerors did not understand these subtleties.
The new colonists - settlers not only could replace emigrated indigenous people, but even became the instrument of the tsarist colonial policy, that especially revealed in the discrimination of the Crimean Tatars on the part of the invaders - colonists. Crimean Tatars, deprived of all human rights, mainly by the newcomers first of all suffered all kinds of possible mockeries. By virtue of their ignorance the Colonists even had not the slightest idea that before them in the humiliated and deprived of all civil rights position now stands the same Bulgarian, German, Greek, Slav, Armenian, Turk, etc., but just of other creed, and arrived at the Crimea some centuries prior to his arrival from there, as he. However, among the colonists there were not many educated people, that is why they conducted themselves as the colonizers.
However, the history repeats. And when the communistic empire came to take the place of the Tsarist empire these colonists have wholly tasted the fate of the humiliated and offended.
The Russian Tsarist empire ruled in the Crimea for about a century, even less than Goths. For this time the nation of the Crimea - Crimean Tatars – already comprised less than 20 % of the population of the Crimea – in consequence of a total genocide. The other 80 % of the population comprised of the migrants from the Christian countries. The most part of the Crimean Tatars emigrated to Ottoman empire, settling in modern Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey. And, as always, the steppe dwellers, who formed the basic ethnic structure of emigrants, underwent the greatest persecutions. The mountain dwellers, this time again preserved themselves better than Nogays and Tats (steppe dwellers and South Coast dwellers), having escaped in an unattractive for the conquerors mountain gorges.
But the Tsarist Russian empire which was a thunder-storm for any external enemy, suddenly, unexpectedly, by the end of the First world war ordered everyone to live long. The inevitable thing occurred – the decline of the colonial empires began. And Russian empire was the most archaic as to its internal construction, therefore it fell one of the first did not sustain the impact of the democratization of the planet’s population.
Taking a look at the history and to trace the whole way from the foundation of Russian state up to the First world war we may see clearly the obvious fatality of the national explosion, resulted in falling of a thousand-year structure. Russian Tsarism could avoid this explosion, carrying out a reform during the pre-Peter times, during so-called "vague time" when there was a change of dynasties of Rurikoviches and Romanovs. But the reforms were not carried out. The colonial Russian state, which begun its existence from the conquests and enslavement of the Slavic tribes by the Scandinavian Russes, decided even after the change of dynasties to preserve the centuries-old firmness of the orders and traditions. And this order was established from the moment of the formation of the first Russian state. How it occurred?
During the period from late 8 – 11 centuries in Europe the people referred to as Vikings got the big popularity. In the Western Europe they were referred to as Normans (Nordmann - northern person), and in the East - Varangians (Vorog, i.e. the enemy – from Slavic language). This people, being of Scandinavian origin and, being very enterprising and aggressive, by their seaworthy boats bravely started up in the risky campaigns not only along the coast of Europe, but also develop faraway islands and continents (Iceland, Greenland, Northern America). Desperately courageous and most experienced in fight, in small groups they inspired fear on whole Europe, creating colonies and even states. In the 11 century, for example, they conquered the North-East England, in 10 century - Northern France (Normandy), and in 1066 the duke of Normandy Wilhelm (the Conqueror) landed in England and in the fight at Hastings beat the army of Anglo-Saxon king Harold 2 and became the English king. The occurrence of Vikings was frequent in Mediterranean sea as well.
As far as the East Europe concerns, these were they who made trade way through the system of the rivers "from Varangians to Greeks", i.e. to the rich Byzantium. And as this way passed through the land occupied by Slavs, the Scandinavians incidentally conquered also these Slavs. It seems like that Slavs could not show the enemy any adequate resistance. This predetermined their further destiny. To the south of the Slavic grounds the steppe open spaces, occupied by another aggressive people - Khazars, who themselves preferred to trade directly with Byzantium. It appeared beyond Normans strength to overcome Khazars. They had either to pay the duty when being on their land, or to start with them the infinite war clashes which had the variable success.
The Scandinavian tribe, which subdued the Slavs settling along the trading way to Byzantium, was referred to as Ruses. Hence, all lands together with the subject to Ruses population began to be referred to as Russian, regardless of the fact how Slavs named themselves: Kriviches, Polyans or by any other name. Russian – that’s all, because you belong to Ruses, you not independent.
Such state, created by Normans, where Ruses played the privileged role of masters by right of colonizers - conquerors, became a basis of that colonial slaveholding empire, which subsequently developed under these principles: the privileged military caste - class and common people, assigned to serve to this class. At first, Slavs just rendered a tribute, but then were reduced to the position of slaves (lackeys), that is contemptible class.
Normans - Ruses (Ruses - Varangians) zealously observed class isolability, bared from marriages between themselves and the slaves - lackeys. The lack of brides was made up outside the state, usually it were "the Field", i.e. from the Turkic neighborhood (Khazars, then Pechenegs, then Polovets, etc.) Symbiosis with "field" appeared so close and organic, that about already in one and a half - two centuries Ruses absolutely forgot about their Scandinavian roots, knitting with Turkic steppe with an indissoluble vital bonds. (13) As real soldiers, Ruses respected military valor and courage, therefore they didn’t regarded Slavs for people, and when taking them to campaigns they were allocated a role of so-called "cannon-fodder", i.e. the mass to be used on slaughter. By the way, such attitude towards the common people preserved through the centuries up to now, because the strategy and tactics of Russian military art was always based on it: to win, using human victims, which cost them nothing and easily made up the rank and file soldiers. These soldiers were picked from lackeys, and always were plentiful.
The Tatar-Mongol invasion was spread not only to steppe. The Russian territories also joined the great empire. And it was made voluntary (6), because the Tatar empire did not begin to break the foundations, existing in Russia. And the tribute, which the numerous Russian princedoms had to pay to Saray, appeared rather moderate. All this was justified by stability of existence under a wing of the mighty empire. But Slavic lackeys still remained slaves to the Russian masters: ethnic-class stratification of Russian princedoms remained unchanged. But the lordly non Slavic elite began Tatarized noticeably, regarding it as a honor to become related with the natives of Golden Horde. As well Russian princes willingly recruited free Turks (Cossacks), appreciating them as the excellent soldiers. Cossacks accepted Orthodoxy and also became Russians (4).
By the way, Slavs were referred to as Russians as well, though class barriers to them always were insuperable. That is why, there was no mixing of the Russian Slavs, being in the lowest class, with Russian non Slavs. And the formation of the Russian nation proceeded without any participation of Russian Slavs. That was a paradox. Two peoples existed side by side, had the same name, but did not mix up. Slavs even were not recruited in prince’s armed forces.
For the reinforcement of the prince’s armed forces, besides the people of the same class, were invited Cossacks from "field" or from the Horde. Only in special cases Slavs – smerds were accepted in irregulars. So was with Dmitry Donskoy's army, which except for prince’s armed forces of numerous cities - princedoms, numbered a lot of home guards; the same was during "the vague times" when prince Pozharsky headed the national home guard. In other times Slavs were not allowed to carry the weapon.
Russian Slavs for many centuries of the existence of Russian state always remained lackeys. This tradition, established by the first Normans, who came to the East Europe, for some reason even after many centuries was strictly observed. It was only Peter 1 who broke it. Because he had to and only partly, when the regular shot troops rebelled. Instead of riflemen, professional soldiers, Peter established the recruit duty from the subject classes of the population, i.e. from the lowest classes. Picking the recruits in regular army on lifelong service from slaves, he at that did not give the recruits the right to turn into the class of officers - noblemen. The lifelong soldier in fact played a role of " cannon-fodder", without the right even to return to his own class. This "cannon-fodder" constantly reinforced as required, and therefore valued low. Since 1793 the service limited to 25 years, and since 1834 - to 20 years, until it wasn’t replaced in 1874 with a general compulsory military service.
The thousand-year slavery of smerds - peasants continued to be firmly preserved. While the Russian nation, which was constantly filled up both from the east, and from the West by foreigners due to turning them in Orthodoxy, and developed both physically and spiritually, slaves - Slavs dragged out a miserable existence, deprived of not so much physical, than spiritual perfection, being in full illiteracy and ignorance.
Alexander II in 1861 eventually dared on a first step of merger of two Russian peoples, leveling them in the legal rights. However, it was necessary to make it 500 years earlier, then this association wouldn’t happened so painfully: too big was the difference between the educated Russian nation and illiterate and hopelessly ignorant ethnos of Russian Slavs. Half-century later Russia reaped the fruits of this discrimination: there was next peasant “revolt, senseless and ruthless". But if in the past the deprived of all civil rights Slav-peasant crowd suffered constant defeats from Russian nation which was well organized and professionally prepared for military campaigns, though much smaller, by the end of the First world war the parity of forces appeared to be not in favor of the last one. First, there were 4 million lackeys under gun, the second, this "cannon-fodder" acquired the military experience. Though, among them there were no officers, who had the knowledge of strategy and tactics of conducting military operations, nevertheless, using repeatedly surpassing numerical advantage, and also the help of "specialists" from the opponent camp, the lackeys - Slavs eventually overcame the thousand-year masters - usurpers, partly destroying them physically, partly expelling them from the country.
Thus, not only change of authority occurred, but what is much more important, the change of the name of the peoples. The Russian nation dominating in the Eastern Europe since 11 century until 22 century was dispersed all around the world. The rest of the Russian nation after the civil war continued to be subjected to repression and destroyed by the flown into a rage Slavs.
The empire of Bolsheviks which was founded on the place of the defeated empire of Ruses, i.e. the empire of former slaves Russians, already at born was doomed, because slaves appeared too illiterate for construction of the state and the civilized society. Even the declared total educational program (liquidation of illiteracy) did not help, because the thousand-year slavery develops quite certain heredity inherited through the generations. The slave can give birth only the slavery where he becomes the bad slaveholder. It is no wonder therefore, that in the 30th the Soviet village returned to the serfdom, and the political system - to absolutism. The slave was unable to invent anything new, though all this construction was called very pretentiously and pseudoscientificly (the socialism, the advanced socialism, communism).
Slavs replaced the orthodox religion, which united the Russian nation, with the religion of communism, having proclaimed the prophets Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin. The communist religion promised a paradise on earth, instead of the other world, therefore it was mo comprehendible to so-called common people, who due to their ignorance and intellectual feebleness were not even capable to comprehend it.
Though, all the sane people, who doubted the ideology of the communists, the fans of communism destroyed physically not in hundreds and in thousand, but in millions. Medieval inquisition in comparison with the acts of communists looked a prank of the child. The lackeys of Russia who expelled their masters and became the hegemons in the country, in fact made it "the country of fools", because they had no knowledge and were not able to govern the state. Nevertheless, on the first suspicion they executed every Russian intellectual, who dared to doubt the correctness of the leaders – prophets’ conduct, leading the silly people to hell.
When the representatives of so-called classes of exploiters were destroyed, they started destroying the whole peoples. It appears that, it was necessary to destroy some peoples which do not allow Russian people (this way the ethnos of Slavs now began to name itself) to construct the constantly moving away communist paradise. And the new orgy started.
In the list of peoples which were to be destroyed on the opinion of lackeys - communists, were included Crimean Tatars as well (alongside with the Russian Germans, Chechens, Ingushs, Karachays, Balkars, Kalmyks, Meskhetin Turks, Koreas and a lot of more small peoples which were getting in the way; the important thing was - to find the next victim, to set the brutal for famine and disorder "obedient people” against it. Then - divide and reign). This became the national policy of communists during post-war time.
Absurdity? Yes. Now it looks obvious. But those years the country of fools perceived these acts quite seriously. And the main thing - carried out strictly and without reflecting them. To think in general was harmful for one’s health. There was “the leader and the teacher", who thought for everyone. However, the slaves accepted such authority (and would accept, until there are slaves). The Soviet people exulted and started up the tears of emotion at the sight of the main cannibal of the country. Only thinking people suffered from this authority. But a thousand-year slave is unable and did not want to think.
However, nothing is eternal under the moon. The foreign post-war world experienced the economic boom and prosperity, and the country of fools again protected by "Iron Curtain" from the rest of the world, convulsively duplicating the military weapon in the hope to repeat an attempt on the world hegemony: really "the drunk will sleep oneself sober, but the fool - never".
Eventually, the communistic empire (Empire of slaves) failed without any outside assistance, from its own poverty and incompetence. Soviet Union collapsed, as a house of cards. But the tragedy of peoples, inhabiting the post-Soviet area, - a chronic lack of brains, which would be capable to provide their prosperity, still remained. Brains were systematically destroyed by a communistic regime during 20 century. The last years, after the collapse of the empire, they - brains - began to run up, because they could not resist the marasm of the authority of fools (only during resent years 300 thousand high qualified experts emigrated from the post-Soviet area). The vicious circle turns out in the result. Thus, instead of the talented Russian nation (partly destroyed, partly running up all around the world) only the ethnos of Russian Slavs, which was not even a pity shadow of the former intellectual nation in Russia left in Russia.
Russia and the Crimea, formally considered the multinational states, the basic on quantity population are the Slavs, continuing persistently name themselves Russians. But to Russian nation they have precisely the same relation, as modern Crimean Tatars to that of Mongol tribe, living in 11 century in Mongolia and referred to as Tatars. Not more. However, having taken another’s name, they - thousand-year slaves Ruses-Russians, also appropriated the historical glory of the great nation, though they did not took any part in creation of this glory. Yes, they were slaves - lackeys of these Russians. But here their role in a history comes to an end. However, not yet. After revolution they also destroyed millions of talented people. That is their leading role in a history of nations of the world and especially Russian nation.
The indigenous people of the Crimea, which conducted the acts of disobedience in the places of exile at the end of 80th and in the beginning of 90th of the 20 century, even after collapse of the Bolshevik empire was continued to cause obstacles to returning to their historical native land. Communists of the Crimea kept their power because the Crimea, as it was, remained the communist reserve. And there wasn’t anybody to displace them, though, territorially after disintegration of the empire the Crimea formally gemmated from Russia, the successor empire of the slaves.
The Crimea exists now as a communistic enclave, which invaded against the will of the communistic invaders, returning disgraced people. As a result two irreconcilable ethnic camps appeared: former usurpers, the communist-Slavs remaining in the numerical majority and at authority, and their revived victims, returning from nonexistence and comprising 10 % of the population of the Crimea. The invaders regard the returning Crimean Tatars as their defeat, therefore treat them hostilely, intending again to win the lost positions of autocratic hegemons. Crimean Tatars, though, receiving encouragement from all progressive mankind, bravely start an unequal fight with the superior forces of still mighty opponent, receiving besides all an assistance from the neighbor Russia, that also cannot reconcile with the loss of the Crimea. That is why it regards the Slavic population of the Crimea as the "the fifth column".
However, this opposition of unequal yet forces is quite predictable. The laws of the history are relentless. The Slavs of the Crimea today step on the same raker which repeatedly beat on the silly foreheads of their predecessors. However, the historical time is incommensurable with the time of one generation of people. However, the Slavs will suffer the same fate, as their recent oppressors of the indigenous people - Bulgarians, Greeks, etc. And the stronger their fierce resistance will be, the stronger will be the impact of these rakers on their descendants. There is only one alternative of the peaceful and happy solution of the conflict: the recognition by the invaders of the political realities and the refusal from nostalgia of the colonial dictatorship. This time have passed irrevocably. Therefore, the faster the communist-Slavs would comprehend this, the faster the ethno-cultural harmony of the unity of the population of the Crimea will come. The only thing that requires is a Good will of all the people inhabiting the Crimea. But this is a Utopia.
As far as the new hegemon concerns, it is already known. This is the reviving nation of Malorosses. Meanwhile it collects forces and power - state and intellectual. The tendencies of the revival of the national consciousness are clearly apparent here. And the desire to take a revenge for the centuries-old oppression and humiliation of their national dignity is unshakable. However, the main oppressors – Velikorosses already not exist. However, there are their successors, which appeared during the communistic regime - the Russian Slavs, who in a civil war destroyed the Russian nation of Velikorosses and who inherited the arrogance and boastfulness of their prostrate masters. That is why, the Russian-Slavic Diaspora of the Crimea, by a chance found oneself on the position of national minority in sovereign Ukraine, these very Malorosses will consider for their duty to take their true place. They will regard this as the restoration of the national justice.
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